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### Pump

A pump is characterized by a total head increase versus total flow curve (Figure 96). The total head is defined by:

(36) |

where is the vertical elevation, is the pressure, is the liquid density and is the value of the earth acceleration. The total flow satisfies:

(37) |

where is the mass flow. The pump characteristic can be defined underneath a *FLUID SECTION,TYPE=LIQUID PUMP by discrete data points on the curve. The data points should be given in increasing total flow order and the corresponding total heat values must be decreasing. No more than 10 pairs are allowed. In between the data points CalculiX performs an interpolation (solid line in Figure 96). For flow values outside the defined range an extrapolation is performed, the form of which depends on the precise location of the flow (dashed lines in Figure 96). For positive flow values inferior to the lowest flow data point, the total head corresponding to this lowest flow data point is taken (horizontal dashed line). For negative flow values the total head sharply increases ( ) to simulate the zero-flow conditions of the pump in that region. For flow values exceeding the largest flow data point the total head decreases sharply with the same tangent .

The gravity acceleration must be specified by a gravity type *DLOAD card defined for the elements at stake. The material characteristic can be defined by a *DENSITY card.

Example files: centheat1.

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**Contents**guido dhondt 2012-10-06