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*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT

Keyword type: step

This procedure is used to perform a coupled thermomechanical analysis. A thermomechanical analysis is a nonlinear calculation in which the displacements and temperatures are simultaneously solved. In this way the reciprocal action of the temperature on the displacements and the displacements on the temperature can be taken into account. At the present state, the influence of the temperature on the displacements is calculated through the thermal expansion, the effect of the displacements on the temperature is limited to radiation effects. In addition, the influence of the network fluid pressure on the deformation of a structure and the influence of the structural deformation on the network fluid mass flow can be considered. Other heating effects, e.g. due to plasticity, or not yet taken into account. This card is also correct for CFD-calculations with heat transfer.

There are five optional parameters: SOLVER, DIRECT, ALPHA, STEADY STATE and DELTMX.

SOLVER determines the package used to solve the ensuing system of equations. The following solvers can be selected:

- the SGI solver
- PARDISO
- SPOOLES [3,4].
- TAUCS
- the iterative solver by Rank and Ruecker [52], which is based on the algorithms by Schwarz [55].

Default is the first solver which has been installed of the following list: SGI, PARDISO, SPOOLES and TAUCS. If none is installed, the default is the iterative solver, which comes with the CalculiX package.

The SGI solver is the fastest, but is is proprietary: if you own SGI hardware you might have gotten the scientific software package as well, which contains the SGI sparse system solver. SPOOLES is also very fast, but has no out-of-core capability: the size of systems you can solve is limited by your RAM memory. With 2GB of RAM you can solve up to 250,000 equations. TAUCS is also good, but my experience is limited to the decomposition, which only applies to positive definite systems. It has an out-of-core capability and also offers a decomposition, however, I was not able to run either of them so far. Next comes the iterative solver. If SOLVER=ITERATIVE SCALING is selected, the pre-conditioning is limited to a scaling of the diagonal terms, SOLVER=ITERATIVE CHOLESKY triggers Incomplete Cholesky pre-conditioning. Cholesky pre-conditioning leads to a better convergence and maybe to shorter execution times, however, it requires additional storage roughly corresponding to the non-zeros in the matrix. If you are short of memory, diagonal scaling might be your last resort. The iterative methods perform well for truly three-dimensional structures. For instance, calculations for a hemisphere were about nine times faster with the ITERATIVE SCALING solver, and three times faster with the ITERATIVE CHOLESKY solver than with SPOOLES. For two-dimensional structures such as plates or shells, the performance might break down drastically and convergence often requires the use of Cholesky pre-conditioning. SPOOLES (and any of the other direct solvers) performs well in most situations with emphasis on slender structures but requires much more storage than the iterative solver. PARDISO is the Intel proprietary solver.

The parameter DIRECT indicates that automatic incrementation should be switched off. The increments will have the fixed length specified by the user on the second line.

The parameter ALPHA takes an argument between -1/3 and 0. It controls the dissipation of the high frequency response: lower numbers lead to increased numerical damping ([47]). The default value is -0.05.

The parameter STEADY STATE indicates that only the steady state should be calculated. If this parameter is absent, the calculation is assumed to be time dependent and a transient analysis is performed. For a transient analysis the specific heat of the materials involved must be provided. In a steady state analysis any loading is applied using linear ramping, in a transient analysis step loading is applied.

The parameter DELTMX can be used to limit the temperature change in two subsequent increments. If the temperature change exceeds DELTMX the increment is restarted with a size equal to times DELTMX divided by the temperature change. The default for is 0.85, however, it can be changed by the *CONTROLS keyword. DELTMX is only active in transient calculations. Default value is .

First line:

- *COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT
- Enter any needed parameters and their values.

- Initial time increment. This value will be modified due to automatic incrementation, unless the parameter DIRECT was specified (default 1.).
- Time period of the step (default 1.).
- Minimum time increment allowed. Only active if DIRECT is not specified. Default is the initial time increment or 1.e-5 times the time period of the step, whichever is smaller.
- Maximum time increment allowed. Only active if DIRECT is not specified. Default is 1.e+30.

Example:

*COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT .1,1.

defines a thermomechanical step and selects the SPOOLES solver as linear equation solver in the step (default). The second line indicates that the initial time increment is .1 and the total step time is 1.

Example files: thermomech.

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**Contents**guido dhondt 2012-10-06